Wednesday, July 17, 2013

To "Do" or Not to "Do", That Is the Question


Catholics believe that when Jesus charged the apostles at the Last Supper to "Do this in remembrance of me" (Lk 22:19; 1 Cor 11:24), He charged them with offering the sacrifice of Himself, which essentially made them priests. The English translation of the original Greek does not make this readily apparent. But, a study of the Greek words bears out the sacrificial implications of what Jesus commanded.

For example, let us take the Greek word for "Do" in this passage: ποιέω, poieo. If we look at the usage of this word in the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament), we find that it often occurs within a sacrificial context as the word for the offering in the Temple. The equivalent Hebrew word is עָשָׂה, ‘asah, which the KJV translates as "to offer" 49 times. In the NAS it is even translated as "sacrifice" on two occasions (cf. Exo 10:25; Lev 22:24).

Below are just the examples from the Penteteuch. In these examples, the translation of the Hebrew is from the NASB. The translation of the Septuagint is from Brenton's translation. In a few cases I provided the translation from the New English Translation of the Septuagint and/or The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint whenever these translations served to further validate the sacrificial meaning of the text.

Exo 10:25
NASB:But Moses said, “You must also let us have sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice them to the Lord our God.
Brenton:And Moses said, Nay, but thou shalt give to us whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices, which we will sacrifice (poiesomen) to the Lord our God.

Exo 29:38
NASB:“Now this is what you shall offer on the altar: two one year old lambs each day, continuously.
Brenton:And these are the offerings which thou shalt offer (poieseis) upon the altar; two unblemished lambs of a year old daily on the altar continually, a constant offering.

Lev 5:10a
NASB:And he shall offer the second for a burnt offering, according to the manner:
NETS:And the second he shall prepare (poiesei) as a whole burnt offering, as is customary.
Brenton:And he shall make the second a whole-burnt-offering, as it is fit

Lev 9:7
NASB:Moses then said to Aaron, “Come near to the altar and offer your sin offering and your burnt offering, that you may make atonement for yourself and for the people; then make the offering for the people, that you may make atonement for them, just as the Lord has commanded.”
Brenton:And Moses said to Aaron, Draw nigh to the altar, and offer (poieson) thy sin-offering, and thy whole-burnt-offering, and make atonement for thyself, and for thy house; and offer (poieson) the gifts of the people, and make atonement for them, as the Lord commanded Moses.

Lev 9:16
NASB:He also presented the burnt offering and offered it according to the ordinance.
Brenton:And he brought the whole-burnt-offering, and offered (epoiesen) it in due form.

Lev 14:19a
NASB:"The priest shall next offer the sin offering and make atonement for the one to be cleansed from his uncleanness.
Brenton:And the priest shall sacrifice (poiesei) the sin-offering, and the priest shall make atonement for the person under purification to cleanse him from his sin

Lev 14:30
NASB:"He shall then offer one of the turtledoves or young pigeons, which are within his means.
Brenton:And he shall offer (poiesei) one of the turtle-doves or of the young pigeons, as he can afford it,

Lev 15:15
NASB:and the priest shall offer them, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf before the LORD because of his discharge.
Brenton:And the priest shall offer (poiesei) them one for a sin-offering, and the other for a whole-burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the Lord for his issue.

Lev 15:30
NASB:'The priest shall offer the one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering So the priest shall make atonement on her behalf before the LORD because of her impure discharge.'
Brenton:And the priest shall offer (poiesei) one for a sin-offering, and the other for a whole-burnt-offering, and the priest shall make atonement for her before the Lord for her unclean flux.

Lev 16:24
NASB:"He shall bathe his body with water in a holy place and put on his clothes, and come forth and offer his burnt offering and the burnt offering of the people and make atonement for himself and for the people.
Brenton:And he shall bathe his body in water in the holy place, and shall put on his raiment, and shall go out and offer (poiesei) the whole-burnt-offering for himself and the whole-burnt-offering for the people: and shall make atonement for himself and for his house, and for the people, as for the priests.

Lev 22:23
NASB:'In respect to an ox or a lamb which has an overgrown or stunted member, you may present it for a freewill offering but for a vow it will not be accepted.
NETS:And a calf or a sheep that has a cut on its ear or one with a stunted tail, you shall make a slaughtering (sphagia poieseis) of them for yourself, but it will not be accepted for your vow.
Brenton:And a calf or a sheep with the ears cut off, or that has lost its tail, thou shalt slay them for thyself; but they shall not be accepted for thy vow.
Lexham:But a young bull or sheep with split ears, or docked tail, as slain victims you will offer them for yourself, but for your votive offering they will not be accepted.

Lev 22:24
NASB:Any animal which has its testicles bruised or crushed or torn or cut, you shall not offer to the LORD or sacrifice within your land;
Brenton:That which has broken testicles, or is crushed or gelt or mutilated, —thou shalt not offer them to the Lord, neither shall ye sacrifice (poiesete) them upon your land.

Lev 23:12
NASB:'Now on the day when you wave the sheaf, you shall offer a male lamb one year old without defect for a burnt offering to the LORD.
Brenton:And ye shall offer (poiesete) on the day on which ye bring the sheaf, a lamb without blemish of a year old for a whole-burnt-offering to the Lord.

Lev 23:19
NASB:'You shall also offer one male goat for a sin offering and two male lambs one year old for a sacrifice of peace offerings
Brenton:And they shall sacrifice (poiesusin) one kid of the goats for a sin-offering, and two lambs of a year old for a peace-offering, with the loaves of the first-fruits.

Num 6:11a
NASB:'The priest shall offer one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering and make atonement for him concerning his sin because of the dead person.
NETS:And the priest shall offer (poiesei) one for sin and one for a whole burnt offering and the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for the things in which he sinned concerning the soul,
Brenton:And the priest shall offer one for a sin-offering; and the other for a whole-burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him in the things wherein he sinned respecting the dead body,

Num 6:16
NASB:'Then the priest shall present them before the LORD and shall offer his sin offering and his burnt offering
Brenton:And the priest shall bring them before the Lord, and shall offer (poiesei) his sin-offering, and his whole-burnt-offering.

Num 6:17
NASB:'He shall also offer the ram for a sacrifice of peace offerings to the LORD, together with the basket of unleavened cakes the priest shall likewise offer its grain offering and its drink offering
Brenton:And he shall offer (poiesei) the ram as a sacrifice of peace-offering to the Lord with the basket of unleavened bread; and the priest shall offer (poiesei) its meat-offering and its drink-offering.

Num 8:12
NASB:"Now the Levites shall lay their hands on the heads of the bulls; then offer the one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering to the LORD, to make atonement for the Levites.
Brenton:And the Levites shall lay their hands on the heads of the calves; and thou shalt offer (poiesei) one for a sin-offering, and the other for a whole-burnt-offering to the Lord, to make atonement for them.

Num 15:3
NASB:then make an offering by fire to the LORD, a burnt offering or a sacrifice to fulfill a special vow, or as a freewill offering or in your appointed times to make a soothing aroma to the LORD, from the herd or from the flock.
Brenton:and thou wilt offer (poieseis) whole-burnt-offerings to the Lord, a whole-burnt-offering or a meat-offering to perform a vow, or a free-will offering, or to offer (poiesai) in your feasts a sacrifice of sweet savour to the Lord, whether of the herd or the flock:

Num 15:5
NASB:and you shall prepare wine for the drink offering one-fourth of a hin, with the burnt offering or for the sacrifice, for each lamb.
Brenton:And for a drink-offering ye shall offer (poiesete) the fourth part of a hin on the whole-burnt-offering, or on the meat-offering: for every lamb thou shalt offer (poieseis) so much, as a sacrifice, a smell of sweet savour to the Lord.

Num 15:6
NASB:'Or for a ram you shall prepare as a grain offering two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with one-third of a hin of oil;
Brenton:And for a ram, when ye offer (poiete) it as a whole-burnt-offering or as a sacrifice, thou shalt prepare (poieseis) as a meat-offering two tenths of fine flour mingled with oil, the third part of a hin.

Num 15:8
NASB:'When you prepare a bull as a burnt offering or a sacrifice, to fulfill a special vow, or for peace offerings to the LORD,
NETS:But if you offer (poiete) one of the cattle as a whole burnt offering or as a sacrifice to magnify a vow or for deliverance to the Lord,
Brenton:And if ye sacrifice a bullock from the herd for a whole-burnt-offering or for a sacrifice, to perform a vow or a peace-offering to the Lord,

Num 15:13
NASB:'All who are native shall do these things in this manner in presenting an offering by fire as a soothing aroma to the LORD.
Lexham:Every native will sacrifice (poiesei) according to such matters in order to present offerings by fire as a sweet smelling aroma to the Lord.

Num 15:14
NASB:'If an alien sojourns with you, or one who may be among you throughout your generations, and he wishes to make an offering by fire as a soothing aroma to the LORD, just as you do so he shall do.
Brenton:And if there should be a stranger among you in your land, or one who should be born to you among your generations, and he will offer (poiesei) a sacrifice, a smell of sweet savour to the Lord—as ye do (poieite), so the whole congregation shall offer (poiesei) to the Lord.
Lexham:And if an alien among you takes up residence in your land, or a person who may become one among you during your generations and so (he) would (desire) to make an offering by fire, (as) a sweet smelling aroma to the Lord, according to the manner in which you yourselves perform, likewise the congregation will sacrifice to the Lord.

Num 15:24a
NASB:then it shall be, if it is done unintentionally, without the knowledge of the congregation, that all the congregation shall offer one bull for a burnt offering as a soothing aroma to the LORD,
Brenton:then it shall come to pass, if a trespass be committed unwillingly, unknown to the congregation, then shall all the congregation offer (poiesei) a calf of the herd without blemish for a whole-burnt-offering of sweet savour to the Lord,
Lexham:Then it will be (that) if away from the eyes of the congregation (it) occurred involuntarily, then all the congregation will sacrifice a young bull, one out of the herd, without blemish, as a whole burnt offering, as a sweet-smelling aroma to the Lord,

Num 28:4
NASB:'You shall offer the one lamb in the morning and the other lamb you shall offer at twilight;
Brenton:Thou shalt offer (poieseis) one lamb in the morning, and thou shalt offer (poieseis) the second lamb towards evening.

Num 28:8
NASB:'The other lamb you shall offer at twilight; as the grain offering of the morning and as its drink offering you shall offer it, an offering by fire a soothing aroma to the LORD.
Brenton:And the second lamb thou shalt offer (poieseis) toward evening; thou shalt offer (poiesete) it according to its meat-offering and according to its drink-offering for a smell of sweet savour to the Lord.

Num 28:15
NASB:'And one male goat for a sin offering to the LORD; it shall be offered with its drink offering in addition to the continual burnt offering
Brenton:And he shall offer one kid of the goats for a sin-offering to the Lord; it shall be offered (poiethesetai) beside the continual whole-burnt-offering and its drink-offering.

Num 28:21
NASB:'A tenth of an ephah you shall offer for each of the seven lambs;
Brenton:Thou shalt offer (poieseis) a tenth for each lamb, for the seven lambs.

Num 28:24
NASB:'After this manner you shall present daily, for seven days, the food of the offering by fire of a soothing aroma to the LORD; it shall be presented with its drink offering in addition to the continual burnt offering
Brenton:these shall ye thus offer (poiesete) daily for seven days, a gift, a sacrifice for a sweet-smelling savour to the Lord; beside the continual whole-burnt-offering, thou shalt offer (poieseis) its drink-offering.

Num 28:31
NASB:'Besides the continual burnt offering and its grain offering, you shall present them with their drink offerings. They shall be without defect
Brenton:ye shall offer to me their meat-offering. They shall be to you unblemished, and ye shall offer (poiesete) their drink-offerings.

Num 29:2
NASB:'You shall offer a burnt offering as a soothing aroma to the LORD: one bull, one ram, and seven male lambs one year old without defect
Brenton:And ye shall offer (poiesete) whole-burnt-offerings for a sweet savour to the Lord, one calf of the herd, one ram, seven lambs of a year old without blemish.

Num 29:39
NASB:'You shall present these to the LORD at your appointed times besides your votive offerings and your freewill offerings for your burnt offerings and for your grain offerings and for your drink offerings and for your peace offerings "
Brenton:These sacrifices shall ye offer (poiesete) to the Lord in your feasts, besides your vows; and ye shall offer your free-will-offerings and your whole-burnt-offerings, and your meat-offerings and your drink-offerings, and your peace-offerings.

Deut 12:27a
NASB:"And you shall offer your burnt offerings the flesh and the blood, on the altar of the LORD your God;
Brenton:And thou shalt sacrifice (poieseis) thy whole-burnt-offerings, thou shalt offer the flesh upon the altar of the Lord thy God;

Analysis of the Greek word for "remembrance" (ἀνάμνησις, anamnesis) in the same passage, and the Greek word for "thanks" (εὐχαριστέω, eucharisteo) from all four Institution Narratives (Mt 26:27; Mk 14:23; Lk 22:17, 19; 1 Cor 11:24) reveals the sacrificial nature of what the apostles must "do" as well. For my take on these words, see Part 3b of my debate on the New Testament ministerial priesthood.

Pax Christi,
phatcatholic

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