Wednesday, December 03, 2008

Exposing Twilight: Critical Reviews of Stephanie Meyer's Saga

I have been disturbed for a while now by the recent craze over the Twilight books (and the new movie). My fears were first aroused when, browsing through the Facebook "Bumper Stickers" application, I found the following lovely works of art:

This, paired with the frenzied reactions of family and friends lead me to believe that perhaps the obsession over this series was getting out of hand (understatement), and I was curious to see if any Catholic or Christian writers had reviewed the book.

Below is a list of links to reviews and summaries of the Twilight series that bring to "light" it's various anti-Christian and truly harmful qualities. Perhaps this list will be a helpful resource for parents with swooning daughters, or youth ministers who can't get their group to calm down because they are too gitty over this stuff. When girls (and even their mothers!) start viewing Edward Cullen as the epitome of the "ideal man" then something is very, very wrong.

Any links to blog posts will be in chronological order.
More links to be added as I find them.

UPDATE (12/27/2010): I recently came across the following YouTube video that I would like to add to the collection as well:

UPDATE (11/17/2011): In honor of Breaking Dawn: Part 1, which hits theaters this Friday, I added at least a dozen or so links to the collection.

Check back regularly for updates. If you have any links that I have missed, please let me know in the combox.

Pax Christi,


  1. Thank you so much for providing some sanity with regards to the frightening level of devotion to an essentially sick love story, unfit for Catholic consumption.
    I'll be linking to this.

  2. I've been fighting the hype by reading all 4 books and becoming totally informed. Most of my postings were on catholic answers, a couple on phatmass and one on AmP.

    The good news is, when informed, the book is a good catalyst for things teens shouldn't do. Funny, even THEY now it's not "abstinence" Edward and Bella are practicing! But definitely, parents were asking in August since their girls "read, read, and just re-read over and over".

    and actually, it's not that funny when good meaning Christians think it's a promotion of good values when they ignore the loss of heaven, eternal damnation and the "can't have sex because I can kill you" line.

  3. It's a shame that one feels like he's really putting his neck out there if he even attempts to criticize this thing, and I'm sure that eventually some crazed fan will find this post and rip on me in the combox. *shrug* What can you do? That's why I'm really thankful for your support on this. I knew at least you two would understand :D

  4. I've got a decently serious review!

    Check out this male's perspective on Twilight(novel)--maybe my reasoning will resonate with you!

  5. Did you link to Caitlin Flanegan's piece in the Atlantic? I've read a lot of Twilight reviews but hers stood out and was very interesting.


  6. Thanks for pulling this together!

  7. I'm fan of Twilight, an still i know all this stuff. I read Clare Cannon´s article and prepared a conference at school based in all this. I even spoke with a priest and it was really great. We concluded that it is not the best oriented book, but we can still read it with maturity. When we read Twilight books we must be conscious of who we are, where we are, and what are we doing.

  8. +JMJ+

    Here's one that should be part of your list:


  9. Thanks Enbrethiliel and Phatcatholic! I look forward to reading what others have written about the series.

  10. +JMJ+

    I've written a contribution of my own as well, Nicholas:\

    I hope it meets your standards. =) Thanks for compiling this list for everyone.

  11. I didn't really see anything on your blog that qualified as a review. I'm sorry! Maybe I'm retarded or something ...

  12. yeah, thanks for this Nick... I was a little disturbed too when our cousins were swooning and obsessing over this during Thanksgiving break... I'm always suspicious of fads... like this darn book, The Shack or whatever it's called... but that's a whole other thread

  13. Thank you for posting my blog on your list. I was honored to make it. It was nice to be posted on a site that found value in it, rather than the irrate mormon sites that are smearing it across the web. So thanks for the encouragment today. Amie

  14. +JMJ+

    Nicholas: No worries! =) It was my misunderstanding: I thought you were looking for Twilight related stuff from a Catholic perspective (which I do have a lot of), but not necessarily a formal review.

  15. +JMJ+

    In the meantime, here's another one:

  16. As a fan of the twilight series i believe i must defend the books. While reading the above articles, I found one common topic; that all girls want Edward Cullen to bite them. As a female I must admit, Robert Pattinson- the actor who plays Edward Cullen- is attractive, but I would pass on the biting- as I am sure many other women would too. There is a fine line between enjoying the book and obsessing, and I believe the girls interviewed were obsessive times ten. What all the authors of the above articles need to remember is that twilight is a work of fiction, there is no such things as vampires! Another constant theme in these and other articles I have read is that the joining of a vampire and a human is unnatural, but we don’t need to worry about that right authors? Because we are all educated man and women and know vampires do not exist (and if you do, they have facilities for you, with nice men in clean white coats!)! I believe that Twilight and the accompanying books (New Moon, Eclipse and Breaking Dawn respectively) were written by Stephanie Meyer for enjoyment, and that some people (I mean you authors!!) are interpreting it, and taking it, too far. No where in the books did I find any hints of anti Catholicism, as some articles claimed there were. Another popular theme is that Twilight is pro- chastity and life. As for pro- chastity, that’s up for your interpretation. Yes, the two main characters refrain from having sexual intercourse until they are married (that is my definition of “chaste”), but some Catholics I have found believe that being chaste also means no “making out”. The definition is different depending on who you are, and what you believe. The pro life claim, however, I agree with entirely. Although the Stephanie Meyer never comes out and says she intended the book to be pro-life, it is. In the fourth book, Breaking Dawn, Bella (main character) is pregnant and her baby is killing her, stealing her nutrients and she is urged to destroy it. However she does not. She enlists the help of another vampire to help to protect her unborn child, and that is how it is pro-life. They protect the unborn. Twilight was meant to be enjoyed, which myself and many others have done. Thank you.

    Carly Hofmann, 17

  17. dear carly

    obivously you did not get the point of twilight, it is part of a cult uprising to bring down the inflawable catholic church along with the da vinchi code. these books advocate the use of imagination and reading to brainwash children into cults. Satan and librals write books to destroy our youth. we must all do the right Christian thing and start a hate mob and burn these books

    with love,
    cooper 15

  18. I will have to agree with Carly on this one. Twilight was made purely for enjoyment, and how far some people may take it is their problem. It's not an attack on the Catholic Church, or brainwashing kids to go against it. It's a book, and there are plenty of other vampire books out there that readers interested in Twilight also read. Twilight is not a cult, it is simply a phenomenon and a franchise just like Harry Potter. Religion is nowhere questioned in the books, and it most definitely does not say, believe in satan, the Catholic church sucks. So obviously, you, Cooper, did not get the point of Twilight.

    Megan 16

  19. dear cooper15 (and anyone else who agrees with this person),

    you're completely insane. no, i didn't read the books, but one does not need to read the books to determine that you're paranoid and a control freak. the books are part of a cult uprising to bring down the catholic church? HAHAHAH. I "lol'd" when I read that.

    and another thing, if ANYONE, brainwashes children into cults, it's overly religious people like yourself. I've thought this for so long. I absolutely hate the idea of raising your children forcing them to go to church for any religion and forcing them to believe anything of that sort. none of the thousands of religions out there have any proof of anything, yet they consistently shove it down everyone's throats. people taking their children to a church every week and sending them to other religious related activities is completely absurd. THAT, my friend, is BRAIN-WASHING. writing a couple of books that people can read VOLUNTARILY is not brainwashing. look it up.

    & i truly believe your idea of starting a hate mob and burning all the books is a splendid idea, honestly. hopefully you'll go through with it. i look forward to reading about it on the news, and watching the whole world laugh their asses off at your expense.

    -mallory. (:

  20. first off mallory I don't aprove of the vulgar langue used
    second off I'm glad I'm forced to go to a brian washing religion where I make donations weekly to support god cause I know that when the end of the world comes(which will be soon due to the race and certian unholy beliefs that the anti-christ I mean obama holds) I will be brought into eternity and you will rot in hell cause you wouldn't believe and don't tell me those books arnt brainwashing or evil because high Christian atorities have dubed them as such and we as a people must not question them but blindly follow for they posses great judgemental powers, any other opinion is just flat out wrong and an insult to the pope and christian leaders everywhere. in conclusion the youth if they DO and that's a probly not the case read these books voluntaraly should devote there free time to praising the lord in church, collecting money to support the church and reading up on what is exatable to be read and what is the work of Satan

    with love,

  21. I'd just like to say that you people are taking things way too seriously. Stephanie Meyer isn't trying to trying to take down the catholic church. She's just a writer that wanted to write a book that people would enjoy and that would make her rich. Its not demonic, its interesting, and it got a lot of teenage girls to read something other than gossip mags.
    (p.s. cooper, alex, and carly = awesome)
    Esther :)

  22. Alex's posts have been deleted. How about not cussing in the combox? Thanks. Also, I'm gonna go out on a limb and say that cooper is making an attempt to parody the Catholic position with his responses. In other words, I doubt he actually believes what he's writing.

  23. Alex's post was deleted ... again. Btw, Alex, just curious, have you ever convinced anyone of anything by cussing at them? You may want to try a different approach, like, for example, establishing a reasonable argument that actually sounds intelligent. Come back again when you're up to the task.

  24. Had to delete another post from Alex. Haha, he's so typical.

  25. I'm going to have to agree with what Alex had comented on before. I am sorry i had gone away from my computer and refreshed the page just a few seconds ago. Typical is not a sutible word for Alex. Considering he seemed to described you to the point. - Steven

  26. phatcatholic,
    im just wondering, have you ever read the books or are you just letting spitting back other people's opinions?

  27. whoops, made a typo... the "letting" shouldnt be there.

  28. What exactly is it that you agree with, Steven? Perhaps you have a reasonable argument to put forth? It would be a welcomed change from the ignorant remarks your friend Alex has put forth so far.

    Regarding the last comment from "Anonymous", maybe you missed the purpose of my blog post. If I was attempting to write a review of the books, then yes, it would be necessary for me to read them. But, that was never my intention here. The idea was simply to provide a collection of reviews from a Christian perspective that are critical of the "saga" so that parents could get the other side of the story, instead of simply the gushing and swooning of our secular culture. I don't have to read the books in order to do that.

  29. ok, seriously, you are all overreacting, the books in Twilight series are fiction, not propaganda spouted by Satan. And what is so Anti-Christian about creatures who are dedicated to the preservation of life? If you notice the (FICTIONAL) vampires in Twilight have made a point to protect human life at all costs,a fact that supports and anti-abortion theme interwoven into Breaking Dawn. The obsession surrounding Twilight is not an un-healthy fixation its just teenage girls doing what they do best, obsess, and if it wasnt Twilight it would be something else, like the younger age bracket with High School Musical (although Twilight is 100 times better than HSM). So shouldn't parents be thankful that their children are reading and not doing drugs? and celibacy, an idea held firmly in the Catholic church, is upheld, they have physical contact before that but it fits into the most common definition of chastity as carly said. and esther, cooper, carly, and alex, u all rock!

  30. Jesse and Alex's comments were deleted. Until you all can actually be grown-ups and post a comment w/o cussing, then I am going to continue to delete what you write. How do you expect anyone to take you seriously when your comments are more ad hominem then anything of substance?

  31. Actually, since the atheists can't stand it when someone disagrees with them and insist on cussing up a storm, I'm turning on comment moderation until further notice. My challenge to them: make a comment without cussing or slandering me.

    [Don't anyone hold your breath.]

  32. well first off phatcatholic I don't think it's very nice to sterotype atheist I myself am one and I don't use vulgarities. now I am now familiar with all religions seeing as I like to look at creation from a science stand point but from what I gathered you are trying to get parents to start a boycot agianst a book, that is in fact a work of fiction, that you have in fact never read. I think that idea is reducoulos the youth of todays education is reclining and sudenly they get interest in reading, a tool that helps in writting and memorization, and you want it banded because someone else did not like it. you my friend should be ashamed of yourself. if we all did not do something because one group did not think it was right based of something some had said and not a personal experiance we would be stuck back in the dark ages never progressing. it's easy to read and exert from a passage that had been taken out of context and agree to what ever the blog author wants you to think or you could take the hard route and read the book with an unbias stance and form your opinion after you read the book. sadly I think you can not do this and will mearly continue to preach your message. so you can go ahead and delete this comment and then reply in bold text

    sean 34

  33. This argument is painful to read. I would sincerely appreciate it if any and all future comments at least made a sincere attempt to use correct spelling and at least passable grammar.

    Dear Sean: You probably should have recognized Nick's intended meaning, but I realize that ellipsis can be confusing, so I'll explain. By the phrase "the atheists," Nick meant "the atheists who have already commented here."

    For the record, while I have not read all of the books, I have read excerpts, and have formed my opinion as follows: The Twilight series's main characters are mono-dimensional, designed to appeal to their target audience's t[w]eenage [often sexual] fantasies, Twilight's writing is original only it its lurid sappiness, its first person descriptions are an offense against chastity, the fixations and attitudes of the characters are indicative of oft-alluded neuroses, psychoses and other mental issues, it is strangely and unhealthily addicting, and its vampiric subject matter should have warned off every Catholic teen in the first place. After all, garbage into the mind... garbage out of it.

  34. I read all four.

    They are over-rated. I'll go into it more later. =)

  35. Thanks for the links. I hope you don't mind, I reposted the links on my blog.

  36. Thanks for posting this, and including all the links. Just from what I knew about vampire origins in older literature, and folklore I had first had my doubts when Twilight started to snag my attention due to the fact that in those stories that vampires were either demonic, or the spon of the demonic. This past semester ignoring it was simply impossible as the girls I ended up sitting next to in class were obsessed with the book. During break I by fluke came across the movie on youtube and watched it out of curiosity, and at the time it seemed fairly innocent. Then I found the audio books online, and listened to the first two. Though I enjoyed the style of the author's writing (easy and pleasant, but not too dumbed down in word selection) I was uneasy about many of the subjects mentioned in the above links: Bella's extremely critical view of herself and not even caring about her soul even though Edward warned her about loosing it; the fact that Edward would more or less stalk her (good grief! If he were human think about how it would sound explaining to a judge how sneaking into the house and watching her sleep is not stalking.)Guys that act like Edward in real life are creepy, controlling, obsessively critical, nasty, and typically loose with girls (EVEN IF STILL TECHNICALLY A VIRGIN) --- Unfortunately I got to see this kind of behavior in real life; sure he started out doing things that seemed very chivalrous (Not to knock chivalry - unfortunately jerks like this make it all the more difficult for the guys that are actually good). But either way the audio books with the descriptions of Edward's behavior reminded me of my own experience... Plus inconsistencies with even basic general Christian principles (while mixing it with tibits of truth to make it go down easier), made me uncomfortable which lead me to do my own search. My search came up with this, and some similar websites. After reading what I have I certainly won't be having anything to do with the Twilight series, and I strongly encourage others to do the same. Also I definitely say don't let teens read the books; it may just be fiction, but it is easy to start to see such behavior as "normal" a big mistake because anyone that behaves like that is unstable. It's a pity the Mrs. Meyers is wasting her God giving talent of writing in such a way...

  37. I volunteer at my kids school and was amazed by the CRAZE for the Twilight books and movie. Vampirism is running rampant. The kids reading these books are in 5th and 6th grade. there is no content warning and parents readily give consent to their children to read these books. My son, who is 9 and in third grade, told me just today that all the kids in his class have seen the movie. My 5th grade son then piped in about how many AR(accelerated reading) points these books are. And how I never let them read these types...He was referring to Harry Potter...which I have not allowed them to read or see. They feel the peer pressure of this death culture that has such a hold on our children. God Help Us!!!

  38. 3rd graders are watching this movie?!?! Wow.

  39. Geez, you people are over-reacting!!! I'm 15 and in the 9th grade AND CHRISTIAN. Yes, I am obsessed with this book. And yes so are a million other teenagers in the world.

    Twilight is fictin and about a perfect man (which is true, impossible) and an average teenage who cares more about others and the ones shes loves than herself. I don't get why people are freaking out so much. Of course, its mainly overprotective parents. The book is pro-life, it discourges sex before marriage, and it shows the kind of true love that is a truly beautiful thing. Yes, they do go over board about loving each other. But who doesn't when they love someone? I'll bet many of you love your children or your spouses more than God.

    This story is like a Romeo and Juilet story-a great work of art!!! Please tell me you aren't gonna deny your children the story of Romeo and Juilet. I love Edward!!!

    Haha but I love my friends, family, and God much, much more. So losen up and let your kids read it. But I agree. No one in elementary school should read this book yet haha. The earliest age I'll let my kids read it is 6th grade....if I ever have kids haha.

  40. Anon ... your comment pretty much illustrates what we are so concerned about. Way too many teenagers like yourself see nothing wrong with these books. They think it is simply harmless fiction. Not only do they think there is nothing wrong with them, they are "obsessed" by them. They even present the story of Bella and Edward as some type of "pro-life" or "chastity" message.

    You're right, they don't have sex before marriage. But, there would only be virtue in that decision if it was grounded in actual morals and a Christian understanding of marriage and sexuality. But that's not why Bella and Edward abstain. They don't have sex because Edward is afraid he'll rip her to shreds. And it's not like Bella is pure as the driven snow, she spends the whole series pretty much begging Edward to have sex with her anyway. Of course, he says no, so they spend most of their time literally lusting over each other, which, as you know, is a sin. I'm sorry, but there's simply nothing virtuous about that.

    You know, I'd be willing to say, "Yea, this is just another harmless teenage romance novel" if people weren't actually raising this up as some type of virtuous love story, and raising Edward up as this model for what it means to be a man. When people start doing that, then something very twisted is going on and it's up to Christians to actually set this straight.

    Bella cares more about others and the ones she loves than herself? I'll need some proof for that. My impression is that she is in fact very selfish and self-centered.

    Bella and Edward's relationship "shows true love"? I'm afraid you don't understand what love is. Love does not place someone in near occasions of sin. Love does not constantly lust over someone's statuesque body. Love doesn't stalk a person while they sleep. Love doesn't forfeit your soul so that you can have sex with someone.

    Just because Bella and Edward happen to not have sex before marriage, that does not mean that their relationship is a model for how we should pattern our own relationships. I hope against hope that you don't lose yourself in and tie your entire worth to some other guy the way Bella does!!

    And, I'm sorry, Twilight is a FAR CRY from Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare probably turns in his grave at the mere thought of such a comparison.

  41. Thankyou for writitng this. I belong to and Anti-twilight group. We have been very disturbed by the lack of involvement by the church. We are not in any way a religous group, but we have members of all faiths. I my self am protestant. We do however all have in common a great consern about the cult that has risen from the fans of twilight known as Cullenists. (google Cullinism) Just a warning to start out with there is a sickley twisted version of the Lords Prayer, and thats only the begining.

  42. keep dreaming all of you if you all dident know the USA is a free country, girls and or guys can be obsessed with twilight if they want its a free country an there is nothing wrong with it its a normal teenage stage... i my self have an obsession with it along with most the teens an adults in the church i go to an im MORMON!!! its a freakin book an the best fictional vampire book i've ever read so im goin to have to defend the book an all the fan girls an obsessed fan girls when i say GET OVER IT!!! and move on .... cuz there is no possible way any of us fan girls are goin to let some perfectionist freaks ruin it for us... and if you dident know the women who wrote it is christian also....

  43. to the man above who said he formed his opinion from reading exerts from the book, I bet $1000 dollars he read some redical christian propoganda that takes sentenses out of context so they can agree with the blog or article writter, the same thing is done by naturalist with the bible so it can be shown in a radical light. What does this prove, that all radicals, much like twilight HATE groups are as immoral as they say the book is, they preach hate which is something God, atleast the one I believe in, I pretty sure does not stand for. And souless vampires come on this isn't a dugens and dragons game get real there is no such thing as black magic, that's like saying lighting is gods anger. So the book is stupid then don't watch the movie but don't prevent others from reading because reading helps knowledge and with out knowledge we might as well fear souless vampires, come on guys grow up.

  44. This is a great resource, thanks. I have been concerned hearing even Catholics raving about twilight. It is the spirit of death. great blog! Are you also on twitter?

  45. Yup, if you search for "phatcatholic" you should find me.

  46. wow the people on this blog act no more inteligent then people from the dark ages, these explaintions are irrational and based off of either sentences taken out of context or a completly bias opinion, how could be acting in the love of god have so much hate. It's this kind of reasoning that justified slavery, and not treating wemon as equals. This makes me feel terrible to think that fellow Christians are going blindly along with this.

  47. Are you referring to the people who are critical of the book or the people who are applauding it?

  48. who dosent love twilight i mean twilight rocks all the bo cullens ar HOT!!!!!

  49. I don't think "HOT!!!" is necessarily what we should be going after.

  50. My wife and I are voluntary youth leaders at our church and I believe that Jesus Christ died to save me from eternal separation from God (known as Hell) and I am honored to call him my Savior. I have read the Harry Potter series and The Da Vinci Code and my Wife is currently reading the Twilight series. I ask my wife all the time if she has yet read anything innapropriate in the books as we have multiple youth in our church that are currently reading this series.

    Here are my thoughts on this series:

    1.) It doesn;t matter if the main (2) characters never have sex because Jesus said that to even look upon a woman with lust is wrong.
    2.) Living forever (being a vampire)defies God as you would be able to escape Gods judgement.
    3.) There are some curse words in the books according to my wife. Not strong words like the "F" word but lesser words that become a curse word due to the context that they are written in. (Very easy for most people to overlook if they are not careful.)
    4.) Rebellion and disobediance themes run rampant.
    5.) For non-christian readers or readers who do not believe in God or Hell this book is just as dangerous as any other media available to you because you may not see some of what I said above as morally and ethically wrong.
    6.) For born-again believers in Christ this book can be dangerous if you do not "guard your heat" or have on the "full armor of God" as the Bible tells you to.

    If you "guard you heat" and "put on the full armor of god" then you will be able to discern what you should and shouldn't be reading, watching, etc... and if you find ourselve in a situation that you all of the sudden realize that you shouldn't be in you will be able to know how to handle it in a Biblical way that glorifies and honors God.

    I am not saying to read or not read the books, I am just saying to treat them appropriatly. And you won't know the appopriate action untill you know what God want't you to do.

    God Bless,


  51. ok ppl really y should u care so much about a FANTASY book i mean u CANNOT control other ppl even if what they r doing goes against ur religion its just to bad for u. u need to wake up from ur dream world and understaned that there r things in this world that that u cannot control. Cursing, Drugs, sex, smoking ect. r things that R GOING TO HAPPING regardless of how u or god feels about them.

    P.S. Grow up this is life, its not fair. and I a Guy

  52. Why is it that anytime someone criticizes a book he or she gets accused of trying to deny someone their right to read it? No one is trying to control anything. We are simply responding to the absurd notion that Edward Cullen is somehow the ideal man and that his relationship with Bella is somehow the ideal relationship.

    I realize that books like this are always going to exist and that teenagers are always going to read them. But, when these same teenagers (and their mothers) start letting these books shape what they expect out of their own relationships, then Christians need to stand up and say that what is presented in these books is far from the ideal, that Edward Cullen is not in fact the epitome of what it means to be a man, and that girls need to wake up if that is what they are longing for.

    Go ahead. Read filth. It's your right as an American. But, also know that God has in mind something better for you.

  53. lol did u honestly just call me a filth? ok first of all yes u r controlling don’t try to deny that because some of the other posts i have read said that they r not allowing their children to read or see the Twilight books/movies but i must ask why u do not let young children read/see Twilight what wrong could come of it, they don’t chose your life style?,they make a life based on what they chose? is that it? i am truly curious as to the answer. And I believe it is crucial, for a relationship to work, that there be expectations. let people take things from Bella and Edward’s relationship and apply it to there own that’s not wrong. And neither is Bella and Edwards relationship in the first place.
    secondly, you are reading to deeply into the story ppl, i mean they’re not trying to brainwash you or preach demonic corruption.
    and thirdly, Edward Cullen IS the perfect man..... to Bella Swan anyway. and Bella Swan IS the perfect Edward Cullen.
    what i am trying to say is that EVERYONE has their Bella Swan or Edward Cullen the person that is just right for them. the only reason that girls are falling head over heels for the Edward Cullen in Twilight is because they haven’t found their "Edward Cullen" yet. (but i don’t mean to slander the good name of Edward in Twilight tho :) ). The one that makes them feel special…like they belong.

    i believe even you Nicholas, have a Bella of sorts in your fiancee

  54. As a committed Christian I can't bring myself to read the books or watch the movie for two solid reasons.
    1. The romance is between human and vampire is sick, there's no way around it.
    2. The second dream (AKA nightmare)- the return of a 'terrifying' Edward to Stephanie Meyer after she finished the books, to tell her she got it wrong, that he can't live on animals and Stephanie thought he might kill her -- WELL that was that. There is no way I'm even opening to page 1 of these books.

  55. hey i am a Christian too and i don't see a darn thing wrong with the romance between Bella and Edward so what exactly is so sick about Bella and Edward's relationship?

    and uhhhh what about the 2nd dream? it wasn't any more real than the first dream Stephenie had, the only difference is that she chose to write about he first one. there isn't anything in the last two books that has anything to do with Stephenie's 2nd dream. so i ask why is Stephenie Meyer's second dream one of your "solid" reasons?

  56. If you're a Christian than you should have a problem with lust. There's a whole lot of lusting going on in their relationship.

    Mt 5:27-28 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.

    Eph 4:22 Put off your old nature which belongs to your former manner of life and is corrupt through deceitful lusts

    2 Tim 2:22 So shun youthful passions and aim at righteousness, faith, love, and peace, along with those who call upon the Lord from a pure heart.

    Jas 1:14-15 but each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire. Then desire when it has conceived gives birth to sin; and sin when it is full-grown brings forth death.

    1 Pet 2:11 Beloved, I beseech you as aliens and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh that wage war against your soul.

    1 Jn 2:16-17 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh and the lust of the eyes and the pride of life, is not of the Father but is of the world. And the world passes away, and the lust of it; but he who does the will of God abides for ever.

  57. I respect your opinion on this but i must say there are some values in the book. Edward, for instance, will not have sex with Bella unless she marries him, which is what we are taught as christians. He also will not change her into a vampire because he is concerned over her soul which expresses that he truly does love her. Carlisle is also christian which is the reason for the crusifex in their house.
    The book isn't just about lust. They may become a victim of it at some points but who doesn't slip up once in awhile. It's about love. Edward doesn't love Bella just because of lust and the same with Bella. It's a much deeper relationship. Otherwise when he leaves her in the second book she wouldn't have felt the way she did. No one can possibly understand her relationship with him unless they have the same relationship with someone else.
    Sacrifice and restraint are key themes in the series and these struggles are rewarded in the end.

  58. I don't understand why we are arguing about this book anyways when there is so much more trash in the world. Also think about the christian books about exorcisms and other demonic things. (Yes they are christian books since they were written by preists!) Would you rather have your child read that and be scarred for life or Twilight where it's all made up and you can explain that to your child. Because these other books are not made up; they are real and they are horrifying!

  59. Anonymous -
    What we are taught as Christians is that every human person is made in the image and likeness of God. As a consequence, human persons are made to love and be loved - not to be used. The prohibition against pre-marital sexual intercourse is not a technical thing. It is not a matter of "touch this and I go to hell - stop short of touching this and I'm fine". In the Old Testament, there were many very specific, codified laws that the Israelites had to obey. This was because they did not prove themselves capable of love. They praised God with their lips, they fulfilled the technicalities of the law, but they had uncircumsized hearts. It is through the grace of Jesus Christ alone that we are rendered capable of fulfilling the two great Commandments - love of God and love of neighbor.
    The relationship between Bella and Edward is one of use. They do not consummate a sexual act prior to marriage, but this is not due to their respect for each other. They repeatedly use each other for physical pleasure even though they have to right to each other's body - they are not one flesh. It is marriage that bestows upon a couple something known as "conjugal rights". Bella begs Edward not to wait, and Edward (much removed from reality, I might add) refuses because he is afraid to kill her. We see that on their honeymoon, Bella gets horribly beaten up as a consequence of intimacy with Edward - but she protests that it is "perfect". Excuse me?
    Also, Jacob is abusive in his treatment of Bella. She is freezing cold in a tent and he invites her into his sleeping bag to warm her up. He takes the opportunity to fantasize about her sexually - and Edward gets angry because he can hear thoughts, and Jacob's thoughts are so "loud" that Edward is unable to sleep. Meanwhile, Bella stays there in the sleeping bag - granted, she's freezing, so she is desperate - but what a horrible abuse by Jacob! He and Edward lie there arguing about the sexual fantasizing Jacob is doing, as if Bella is nobody - and she doesn't get up and run away. Jacob even tries to get Bella to take off her clothes, assuring her that she will warm up more quickly that way. Do you really think Jacob was concerned about Bella's warmth - or was he really just hoping to use her when her naked body was pressed up against him in a sleeping bag?
    This total lack of self-respect on Bella's part culminates in a way when Edward offers Jacob the opportunity to impregnate Bella (who by then, is his wife) because Jacob's baby will not kill her - unlike Edward's. And Bella's response? Incredibly "I don't deserve either of you!" She thought that plan was a sign of love and concern on the part of these two guys.
    Unfortunately, I think a lot of girls, especially, are "enjoying" these books because they are as acclimated to a culture of use as poor Bella is. But Bella is not an innocent victim. A victim, yes - but a willing victim, and thus a selfish participant.
    This is most definitely NOT a book series about love and sacrifice. It is a book series about self-will and the willingness to cope with certain obstacles and inconveniences in order to grab what you want.

  60. lol I think u need to understand that there varying intensities to which people practice there religion. Everyone is not as orthodox as u are. I go to church twice a year so as it happens I do not follow the guide lines of Christianity to the letter and I do not have a problem with lust.

    ok spesunica firstly,
    u ask why Bella doesn’t get up and run away in the tent?
    "but what a horrible abuse by Jacob! He and Edward lie there arguing about the sexual fantasizing Jacob is doing, as if Bella is nobody - and she doesn't get up and run away." well its because she is half asleep. it even says in the book the reality has taken on a dream like quality. she cant actually fall asleep because there is a storm raging outside so she's semi-conscious thereby causing her to wonder whether what she’s hearing is reality or not.

    second u say "We see that on their honeymoon, Bella gets horribly beaten up as a consequence of intimacy with Edward - but she protests that it is "perfect". Excuse me?". she does NOT get "horribly beaten up" she get bruises and i think the term "beaten up" implies that the victim is UNWILLING to be harmed but is harmed anyway. i don’t know if you have had sex, but u have to be pretty dense to not know why Bella says that having sex with someone she truly loves and is committed to is "perfect".

    thirdly, u state "This total lack of self-respect on Bella's part culminates in a way when Edward offers Jacob the opportunity to impregnate Bella (who by then, is his wife) because Jacob's baby will not kill her - unlike Edward's. And Bella's response? Incredibly "I don't deserve either of you!" She thought that plan was a sign of love and concern on the part of these two guys." that IS a sign of love and concern because Edward and Jacob want Bella to abort a baby that would otherwise kill her that would be the concern part. and since Bella couldn’t have another baby with Edward, out of fear that the situation would repeat itself, Edward offered her a chance to have a baby that wouldn’t kill her, with Jacob because Edward loved Bella enough that he wanted her to be happy. Jacob loved Bella enough to want her to live so he offered his "services" if u will, to try to
    persuade her to have an abortion so that she could live, thus the love part.

    i don’t see how Bella Swan is a victim in this series of excellent books, i only see a strong independent woman who knows what she wants. and this IS a series about love and sacrifice because when Edward left Bella in New Moon he loved her enough to sacrifice his time being with her, hurting himself, so that she could be safe. he had no intention of coming back therefore this book series is not about "willingness to cope with certain obstacles and inconveniences in order to grab what you want.". it’s about love and sacrifice as i said before. In addition Jacob loved Bella enough to "be good" or surrender at the end of the third book Eclipse because he saw that it was hurting her. he sacrificed his love for her so that she wouldn't be hurting over him any more.

  61. Ok, these reviews don't really do the book justice, but at the same time the book was not written as an honor to god. To be honest no one on this blog or earth has the right to say what is right or wrong in the eyes of god because no one has the right to speak for god. Just read the book and decide your self weather it is appropriate.

  62. yes, i agree and also keep those opinions to yourself people

  63. It's not "speaking for God" to say what is right or wrong in His eyes. He has specifically revealed to us what is right and wrong in His eyes in Scripture and the teaching of the Church. We are simply taking what we know about His Will and applying it to this situation.

    As for "keeping our opinions to ourselves," you only say that to people who disagree with you. You aren't telling all the people who agree with you to keep their opinions quiet. Don't be so hypocritical.

  64. actually i would like people who agree with me/Twilight to keep what they think to themselves because i may not agree with certain points/views that they have. such is the instance with the two major Twilight teams Edward and Jacob. i disagree with one but agree with the other. but i will not say which is which. thus i am not being unfairly judging of one side.

  65. Perhaps the name you go by "Edward Cullen: sexier than you since 1901" gives away which team you would be allied with. It also gives away an attitude of use. It is below the dignity of a human person to describe them with terms like "sexy, hot, etc...". Now I know you may not understand that - if you only attend Church twice a year, you are not habitually receiving the grace necessary to understand. We all have a fallen human nature and we are inclined to sin. Sin is a failure to love - it is putting our own selfish desires over what is good. It hurts us, it hurts other people and it causes other people to hurt us, as well. God is love. He wants us to be happy and tells us how by revealing the Truth about Love. Unfortunately, people often fall into a situation of mutual use - where both of them use each other for pleasure without consideration of what is good - what is right. All of us have a sense of right and wrong written in our hearts by God. I've never met anyone who thinks that murder is a good thing. It is wrong, and as a consequence, it is bad. However, people end up doing it. They distance themselves from God - they don't take advantage of the help He offers them through His grace, and next thing you know, they have a selfish motive which leads them to consider another person "in the way" of what they want. So - they do the unthinkable. This crime or "sin" against another human being came from a deeper problem - one which denigrated the dignity of the person and turned them into an object of use rather than a person to be loved. When we think of human persons in the terms we use to describe objects, we are warping the truth and we become more capable of sinning against them.
    For example, in the case of Edward and Bella... let me ask you this: according to the story, before they got together, not a single woman had survived being impregnated by a vampire. Not one. By engaging in sexual activity with her, Edward was either being incredibly, stupidly optimistic that Bella was going to beat the odds OR it didn't matter because when she was going to die as a consequence of the pregnancy, she was going to be turned into a vampire (thus dooming her to a soulless existence - a fate that he disingenuously (?) claimed to want to spare her) OR they were going to do something unnatural to thwart the fruitfulness of their sexual activity OR their lust and obsessiveness made any consideration of any of these questions too complicated for them to think about... I'm thinking it just might be the last one. Sin darkens the intellect and weakens the will. What do I mean by darkening the intellect? Well - what I said above. Calling a person "hot" is inappropriate unless they have a fever or have no air conditioning in their car. It is an adjective to indicate temperature - "the stove is hot". If I use it to mean "sexy" - I am defining the person solely in relation to how they make ME feel. That is an impoverished understanding of the reality of the person - and our intellect, which is meant to grasp truth, is darkened by the falsehood that we partake in. When we develop habits, it is very difficult to change them - and this is how sin weakens our will. If Bella and Edward are used to seeking pleasure from each other without a deeper and longer range consideration of what is TRULY BEST for each person - AND what might be best for a child they conceive if the natural purpose of marriage is being considered (would abortion as an option be BEST for their child?) they are weakening their wills for future, difficult decisions that will arise and should be made based on LOVE. Jesus Christ has provided the solution to this through His death and resurrection. He has redeemed humanity and offers each of us a participation in that redemption. We can learn how to love - we just need to accept and cultivate God's grace in our souls. "Practicing" religion is learning to truly LOVE. Hopefully, we can acknowledge that learning to LOVE is worth a great deal of effort.

  66. I merely picked the name because I thought it was humorous but I could change it to something that would support Jacob if you wish. Something like “Jacob: because real men don’t sparkle or I brake for shape shifters” or even “Jacob: because life is better half naked.” I think those are all funny, but I can see how you could take my name to mean that I support Edward because you do not find it funny.

    i see that the things i have said, the truths i have told on this blog have not moved many on your "side" but i care very little about that. i knew coming in that it would be difficult to make you see that Twilight is a good thing. but also u should know that your words have not budged me either. I know you are all just trying to makes us see the light, but for some it feels good to be in the dark. i can take comfort in the fact that no matter what you do in your life there will always be Twilight fans and people who love Twilight. and i will be one of those fans and the bitter end.

    This one’s for you spesunica.
    You’re complaining so much about how some women “set a bad example” for your gender and it is getting VERY old. My advice to you is BE THE BIGGER PERSON. Stop complaining, if some people want to…..degrade (I guess that’s what you would see it as) themselves for the pleasure of others, let them. What you should do is set an example of what you see is right, and others who see it your way will join you and those who don’t, won’t. That includes your children. Don’t force them to go to church, ask them if they want to and if they ask you one day if they can go to church with you let them. Let them decide. Stop trying to control your entire gender or religion or whatever. Again I know you are all just trying to makes us see the light, but for some it feels good to be in the dark.

    Quotes that I will say to your “love”.....
    •Is it so hard to believe our hearts are made to be broken by love.- HIM
    •Love is a piano dropped from a 4 story window, and you were in the wrong place at the wrong time- Ani Difranco (these two girls)
    •Just to let you know, the next love letter I send you is a bullet and I hope you take it to heart.
    •Love is consuming you with an intensity that is an agony. Love is a bitter pain, a torment that is almost unendurable, a happiness that mocks you with its hollowness, a misery that tortures you with visions of what will never happen.
    •Love is no cure but rather, the disease itself.
    •Ever notice that the people who hurt you the most are the ones you tend to love more?
    i believe each of these are true in what they say.

    I SAY that if you’re going to hell might as well enjoy the trip. I live in the now, and this is a motto I live by.

    a good motto that u guys should understand is: Hate is a four letter word, love is a four letter lie. This is life.... save yourself.....or die like the rest.

    u have not won and u never will
    signing off

  67. I LOVE TWILIGHT AND EDWARD CULLEN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  68. i feel bad for you.

  69. STOP IT! STOP! STOP! STOP! All of this is CRAZY!! It's a book!! I love each and every one of them. I have two children, a husband, and a full time Univeristy Schedule. God forbid I sit down with a good book every now and again to escape the pressures and stresses of everyday life. I love to read. However, I need to enjoy what I am reading. I have a very good imagination and I enjoy throwing myself into a good book. I read fiction and non-ficiton. I know how to tell the difference. Where is the problem in reading a book with vampires? I know they don't exist and don't pretend that they do so that I can "lust" after Edward Cullen. I don't understand why Christians (not all but most) get so defensive when something, in some way, diminishes the existence of God. Which by the way, is NOT the case in the Twilight Books (you would have to come out of you bubble and read them to understand this). I trust myself and my children to know the difference between fact and fiction. That's all that matters. As for the Chruch stepping in, give me a break. The Church only steps in when it directly affects them and makes them look good. The Church doesn't care of the thousands of innocient lives lost on a daily basis so why would they care about a book? And, I have no trouble saying this, I do NOT believe in God. I understand that may anger a lot of you but that's the way the cookie crumbles. Do not feel sorry for me. I have my own reasons. I am still a loving and devoted mother and wife and I will never deter my children from which ever path they choose even if that path leads them to God. I will continue to be a loving and devoted wife/mother while reading the Twilight Books over, and over, and over, and.............over again!

  70. Anon .... there's so much wrong with your post I'm not really sure where to start. Your words will be italicized.

    STOP IT! STOP! STOP! STOP! All of this is CRAZY!! It's a book!!

    If it's just a book, then why are you getting so emotional about it? "It's a book" ... as if books can't be harmful?

    God forbid I sit down with a good book every now and again to escape the pressures and stresses of everyday life.

    No one is saying you can't. You are perfectly entitled to read the trashiest novels you can find. What we are reacting against is this notion that Edward represents the ideal man and that his relationship with Bella represents the ideal relationship. We don't think him or his relationship is something that girls and their mothers should be longing for.

    I don't understand why Christians (not all but most) get so defensive when something, in some way, diminishes the existence of God. Which by the way, is NOT the case in the Twilight Books (you would have to come out of you bubble and read them to understand this).

    I don't recall anyone saying that the books diminish the existence of God. We just don't think they are very God-like or virtuous in any way.

    As for the Chruch stepping in, give me a break. The Church only steps in when it directly affects them and makes them look good.

    An enticing statement, but it's also off-topic.

    The Church doesn't care of the thousands of innocient lives lost on a daily basis so why would they care about a book?

    I'm sorry, but you really have no idea what you're talking about. The Catholic Church is the largest charitable organization in the world. No one gives more money and food to the poor, more healthcare to those in need, more help for pregnant women than the Catholic Church does (if you came out of your atheistic bubble than you might understand this).

    As for Twilight, since it's not a theology book it doesn't really have a direct bearing on faith or morals, so yea, there's no reason to expect a statement from the CDF about it. But, I think an individual bishop would certainly be within his rights to issue a pastoral letter to his diocese about the dangers of the book. And Christians, who make up the Church, are certainly within their rights to criticize it.

  71. I think that is absolutely ridiculous how all the Catholics have been making a big deal out of these books. I think nothing of it. Its a book. A "friend" of mine is fully "Catholic", to the point where it annoys the hell out of me. I have respect for people he feel stongly about their religion, but not the ones that shove their preaching down your throat and tell you what youre doing wrong with your life. This "friend" is constantly telling me what is wrong with these books and anyone who reads them and sees nothing wrong with it, has a chance of going to hell. Another friend of mine, who is also Catholic, has read these books and loves them. She is also an English teacher at a High School. She says she feels strongly enough about her religion to read and re-read these books. She's also hype about the Edward/Jacob thing, to the point where she is promoting it in the schools. She says that they are great books and that she will stand up to anyone who tries to tell her anything about that and her faith.

    I, myself am a Christian, but obviously not Catholic. Sure, I believe in God. But I'm not trying to be him. The Catholic religion, to me, is WAAAAYYYY over the top. (In reference to the big deal about "Twilight"... and everything else.)

    Stephenie Meyer did a pretty good job with her books. Although she probably wasn't thinking "I'm doing this to piss all the Catholics off." when she published them. Anyways, KUDOS to her.

  72. Anon .... your words will be italicized.

    I think that is absolutely ridiculous how all the Catholics have been making a big deal out of these books.

    What exactly is so ridiculous about it? Please, feel free to prove why our arguments are wrong.

    Its a book.

    Again, w/ the whole "it's a book" argument, as if all books are harmless.

    I have respect for people he feel stongly about their religion, but not the ones that shove their preaching down your throat and tell you what youre doing wrong with your life.

    I realize that your experience with your friend has been a negative one, but don't project that on to us. No one here has said that you are going to hell, and we aren't trying to shove our faith down anyone's throat. We are simply sharing our assessment of this book, just as you are.

    As for your friend who is the English teacher, if she thinks there is nothing wrong with these books, and nothing wrong with how much girls idolize Edward and his relationship with Bella, then honestly, she doesn't know her faith very well. Even a cursory understanding of Catholic morality will tell you that our children should not be holding these things up as their ideal.

    Sure, I believe in God. But I'm not trying to be him.

    No one here is trying to be Him either.

    Pax Christi,

  73. I quite literally see both sides to this argument but don't understand what is so wrong with these books. They're fiction. Girls and boys idolize a lot of things in their teenage years, and as a parent you're responsible for how you raise your children and who they'll grow up to be. If you can't raise your children with enough self esteem or sense to know fiction when in every book store in America the Twilight series can be found in the FICTION section that's your problem. Kid's are very easily distracted in today's society by fiction, but not just Twilight. Girls' (and boys I might add) fixation with Edward and Bella's relationship is a lot like the Romeo and Juliet fixations, the Noah and Ali fixations, and countless others. Teenagers are searching for who to be and a good love story, such as Twilight, has nothing wrong with it. If Twilight were taken completely out of the world tomorrow there would be another book for them to fixate on. Grow up people. Get lives.

  74. Anon .... your last two statements pretty much ruined your entire argument. You were making some good points until you decided, at the very end, to sink to a new low and tell us all that we need to "grow up" and "get lives." I mean, come on! Surely you know that statements like that aren't going to win you any converts.

    If you don't understand what's so wrong with these books, then you need to go back through and read all the comments.

    Also, just because it's "FICTION" that doesn't mean it's harmless. We are voicing our objections because there are a great many teenagers out there who want this fiction to be nonfiction in their lives. They long for and lust after what these books describe.

    The problem is that a lot of parents HAVEN'T raised their children with very much self-esteem or sense, and so it is up to us to remind these girls of what God actually wants for them regarding the men that they associate with and the relationships that they have.

    If your daughter has a good head on her shoulders then no book or movie is going to deter her from what is good and true. But, unfortunately, most girls aren't so fortunate .... as evidenced by the mass hysteria that has surrounded this saga.

    My wife's younger sister reads these books, but I don't think that makes her mom a bad parent? Why? Because this particular girl is grounded in her faith. She doesn't want an "Edward" in her life, she wants a good and courageous man who is going to protect her purity and help her to grow in her faith and her relationship with Jesus Christ. She is nothing like Bella and has no desire to be like her. For this young woman, Twilight is simple entertainment and nothing more.

    But, we're not reacting to women like her. We're reacting to the hysteria, to the people who obsess over this stuff, to the absurd notion that Edward is the ideal man and his relationship with Bella is the ideal relationship.

    Pax Christi,

  75. That's the single most hypocritical statement you've ever posted. It's not okay for some girls to read but for others it is? Just because your sister-in-law is quote/unquote grounded in her faith that makes it okay? You seriously need to make up your mind. If this book is soooo terrible that the "hype" scares you then you should believe no one should read them, not some "good, grounded, religious" people. Absurd. Take it as you like it but your ignorance completely astounds me.

  76. Anon ... you think I'm a hypocrite because you have entirely misunderstood my position. I never said that no one should read them. My fight, from the very beginning, has been with people who say that Edward is the ideal man and that his relationship with Bella is the ideal relationship. That is what I reject.

    There is nothing hypocritical about saying that some people are mature enough to read these books and other people aren't. That's simply the fact of the matter. To some girls its an entertaining read and nothing more. To others it's their every hope and dream. I simply want to bring the dreamers back to reality.

    As you can see, no one is advocating the burning of every Twilight book. If you had bothered to read the reviews that I linked to in my original blog post, you would have seen that the majority position is not one of banning the book but of opening the lines of communication between parent and child. Talk to your children about the subject matter of the book. Read it with them. Make sure they know what is good and bad about it, what should cross over into real life and what should stay in fairy-tale land.

    That's not a hypocritical position, it's a responsible one.

    Pax Christi,

  77. It boggles my mind to read some of these posts and greatly saddens me to realise what an influence paranoid and uneducated people can have! Twilight series is banned? What a great load of nonsense. I challenge you doom-sayers to look at our youth and the reason/cause of their affinity to Twilight series. From a social persepctive, and as a Catholic, I can tell you it is a cry for release and the grasping hold of something that offers the release from a world that the Church ever more so becomes a teetering and anachronistic body that is in danger of becoming a moot entity. The world is not flat, we are not the cebntre of the universe - yet, despite the Chucrh, the world goes on and will - with the Church or not. There is a great lesson to be learned here! I challenge these doom-sayers to step up and use intellectual thought to better manage this world.

  78. randomchristiangurl1/28/2010 7:43 PM

    I've been reading the books, trying to understand why there is so much hype over it (in a christian school even)...and all I can say...after reading the first few chapters of the very FIRST book - I was suprised many of my friends hadn't branded it demonic and anti-christian. Satan really is a smooth criminal.


    Not sure this in included in your listing of articles. Thanks so much for addressing Twilight issues!

  80. I think you need to actually read the books for dosnt sound like you have....then think about your virtues...whats wrong with a book that encourages no sex before marriage, that love is important and worth fighting for and the like....dont hide behind religious ideals till you have read it for yourself. I am a mother and yes my kids have read it and watched it. As have we.

  81. Thank you so much for your blog. I was led by the Holy Spirit into this area. I was so concerned for all these people who have been taken captive by this occultic craze. Thank
    you again that I am not the only one, but other children are standing up to the occultic tide. Blessings to you!

  82. The thing about Twilight and all these other vampy stuff popping out is that, if you are not in tune with God, you will not know that though all that vampy stuff tries to comes off as a pure love stories, there is a fine occult thread weaved in. It's meant to be subtle, because the maker and originator of the occult is subtle. he looks for opportunities to trip us up and tie us up. he'd love nothing more than for all of God's creation to be bound under his heavy yoke of lies. What you don't know, can in fact hurt you...bind you...and ultimately kill you. BE AWARE!

  83. Okay, it may not be free from all swearing, but it's hilarious and gets the point across:

  84. I was reading the comments, but I had to stop because I couldn't take the spelling and grammar mistakes any more! GAH!

  85. Haha, tell me about it! Teenagers these days ...

  86. Here is another article, discussing the chastity part:

  87. Thanks Ranter, I added it to the list

  88. She's not "pure as the driven snow" because she expresses the desire to have sex with the one she loves (but doesn't act on it)? Judge not lest ye be judged. Shall I assume you never masturbated, and waited until marriage to share your sexuality? I think your issue is with young women expressing sexuality, in word or action.


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